Hitler Facts

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20th April 1889- 30th April 1945) ruled Germany as a dictator throughout the Second World War as the Führer, a position he created for himself after successfully overthrowing the short-lived ‘Weimar Republic’, the political status quo imposed upon Germany following its defeat in the First World War. Almost unanimously discredited by the international historical community, Hitler’s far right ideology resulted in a catastrophic global conflict and the mass murder of millions of Jews, Slavic people, homosexuals, and others considered by the Third Reich as undesirable.

Timeline of Major Events in Hitler’s Life

1889-1919

  • 1889, 20th April- Hitler is born in the Austrian village of Braunau Am Inn
  • 1905- Hitler moves to Vienna, the Austrian capital.
  • 1907- Hitler is rejected by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna
  • 1908- The Academy of Fine Arts rejects Hitler a second time
  • 1907- Hitler’s mother dies of breast cancer
  • 1914- Hitler Serves in the First World War
  • 1916, October- During the Battle of the Somme, Hitler is wounded by shrapnel
  • 1918, 13th October- Hitler goes temporally blind after sustaining damage from a mustard gas attack
  • 1918, 11th November- Germany signs the Armistice, formerly commencing their surrender to the Allies
  • 1919- Hitler joins the German Worker’s Party
  • 1919, 16th October- Hitler makes his debut speech at a public meeting, is surprisingly convincing

1920-1929

  • 1920- Hitler takes control of German Worker’s Party propaganda
  • 1920- German Worker’s Party reorganised by Hitler to the ‘NSDAP’, or Nazis for short
  • 1921, 11th July- After receiving internal pressure from senior Nazi leadership, Hitler threatens to resign
  • 1921, 29th July- Senior Nazi leadership realise how integral Hitler is to the movement, promote him to the rank of chairman, later renamed ‘Führer’
  • 1923, 8th November- Hitler attempts the daring ‘Beer Hall Putsch’, it fails
  • 1924, 26th February- Hitler goes on trial for treason, is sentenced to a lenient prison sentence by a sympathetic judge and becomes notorious across Germany
  • 1924, 19th December- After just 9 months of a 5 year sentence, Hitler is released from jail
  • 1925, 18th July- ‘Mein Kampf’, Hitler’s infamous political doctrine is published
  • 1928, 20th May- The NSDAP gain 12 of 491 seats in the Reichstag and 2.6% of the popular vote, following an election

1930-1939

  • 1930, 14th September- The NSDAP surge to the 2nd largest party in the Reichstag, after securing 107 of 577 seats and 18.2% of the popular vote
  • 1932, 25th February- Hitler is granted German citizenship
  • 1932, 31st July- Hitler takes control of the Reichstag after the Nazi Party secure 230 of 608 seats, and 37.2% of the popular vote
  • 1932, 6th November- Hitler maintains democratic control of Germany, but his election figures slip to 196 seats of 584 and just 33% of the popular vote
  • 1933, 30th January- Hitler appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg
  • 1933, 27th February- Reichstag Fire and subsequent Reichstag Fire Decree
  • 1933, 5th March- The NSDAP win 288 of 647 Reichstag seat and 43.9% of the popular vote, their highest result yet
  • 1933, 23rd March- Enabling Act passed by Reichstag
  • 1933, 12th November- Following the abolition of all other political parties, the Nazis secure all Reichstag seats and 92.1% of the popular vote
  • 1934, 14th June- Hitler travels to Venice to meet with Benito Mussolini, securing a key ally
  • 1934, 30th June- The ‘Night of the Long Knives’ takes place over several days, Hitler purges his internal political opposition and the violent and undisciplined SA ‘Brownshirt’ faction within the Nazi Party
  • 1934, August- Following the death of President Hindenburg, Hitler declares himself Führer of the ‘Third Reich’ to little political opposition
  • 1935, 15th September- Hitler announces the Nuremberg Laws, marking the beginning of Nazi racial discrimination policy, especially to Jewish Germans
  • 1936, 29th March- The Nazi regime hold an ‘election’ referendum asking voters for their approval of remilitarisation of the Rhineland, 98.8% of voters are in favour
  • 1936, 25th November- Germany signs the ‘Anti-Comintern Pact’ with the Empire of Japan, they are later joined in 1937 by the Italians, marking the foundations of the Axis alliance
  • 1938, 10th April- German voters are again asked to approve of the regime and the recent annexations of Austria and the Sudetenland, 98.9% vote in favour
  • 1938, March- Austria is annexed into the German Reich during the ‘Anschluss’, in complete disregard of the Treaty of Versailles
  • 1938, 30th September- The Munich Agreement comes into force- a treaty of appeasement that enabled Germany to annex the Sudetenland from neighbouring Czechoslovakia
  • 1938, 9th November- Kristallnacht, a violent state sanctioned attack on Jews across Germany takes place, 91 Jews die and thousands are sent to newly created concentration camps
  • 1939, 24th August- the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact comes into force, a non-aggression agreement between the Third Reich and the USSR
  • 1939, 1st September- Nazi Germany invades Poland with Russian support
  • 1939, 3rd September- Following an ultimatum, Britain and France declare war on Germany

1940-1945

  • 1940, 9th April- German forces successfully invade Norway
  • 1940, 27th April- Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp is established
  • 1940, 22nd June- France surrenders to Germany following the defeat of the Low Countries, the British Expeditionary Force escape to the United Kingdom via the port of Dunkirk
  • 1941, 22nd June- Operation Barbarossa commences, the German plan to invade the USSR
  • 1941, 11th December- The Third Reich and Italy declare war on the United States
  • 1942, 20th January- In the Wannsee Conference, Hitler discusses the ‘Final Solution to the Jewish Question’, intensifying Nazi efforts to exterminate the population
  • 1942 17th July- The Battle of Stalingrad commences, marking a turning point on the eastern front
  • 1942, 23rd October- The Second Battle of El Alamein results in German defeat across North Africa
  • 1943, 4th July- The Battle of Kursk, the largest armoured battle the world has known, results in decisive Soviet victory
  • 1943, 9th July- Allied forces invade Sicily and begin the liberation of Italy
  • 1944, 26th May- Hitler delivers an address at Platterhof, publicly accepting the multicultural nature of the German people for the first time
  • 1944, 6th June- Allied powers stage a massive sea invasion of Normandy, and successfully take the beaches
  • 1944, 20th July- Operation Valkyrie, an assassination attempt on Hitler by German officer Claus von Stauffenberg, fails
  • 1944, 16th December- Hitler orders the Ardennes Assault against the allies, it fails
  • 1945, 19th March- Hitler orders the destruction of German industrial centres, to impede the approaching Red Army
  • 1945, 29th April- Hitler marries Eva Braun in his Berlin bunker, and writes out his will
  • 1945, 30th April- With the Soviets at the gates of Berlin, Hitler takes his own life with a bullet to the temple